25 Apr 2011

Coconut Breeding and Trials Unit (CBTU)

Burias, Mambusao, Capiz

To help promote accelerated development of coconut and other palm oil industry for farmers in particular and the entire nation in general, the following are the projected goals of CBTU:

To complement on-going national research program for coconut varietal improvement and improved agro-technological systems that will suit the conditions of Panay and nearby areas for the systematic development of coconut in the region.

Goals and Objectives
The Coconut Breeding and Trials Unit (CBTU) continually seeks to:
  • breed various coconut varieties of PCA and select suitable planting materials for conservation, replication and distribution;
  • facilitate the release of planting materials for small coconut farmers organizations (SCFOs);
  • record and release observations on coconut growth and development conducted in Capiz State University and compare them with those done in other locations;
  • conduct research activities and demonstration trials on to coconut-based farming systems, integrated pest management and cultural management practices in the area; and
  • establish and maintain a databank of all existing coconut collections.

n a ten-year development program for the coconut industry proposed by then Panay State Polytechnic College (PSPC), the University sought to replicate of the coconut germplasm collection from the Philippine Coconut Authority’s Zamboanga Research Center (PCA ZRC).

To preserve the collection, Deputy Administrator for Research Nebuchadnezzar P. Arboleda, through the support of Dr. Ernesto V. Botin, then PSPC President, conceptualized the Coconut Breeding Trials Unit (CBTU), the first of its kind authorized by PCA’s research branch.

After an agreement was entered into between PSPC and PCA in 1991, CBTU was formally implemented in 1993. Through the years, CBTU propelled its operations, even engaging in active participations with partners and stakeholders until PSPC evolved into what is now Capiz State University. 

Then, in 1999, under the leadership of President Rochellir D. Dadivas, CBTU was formally cited to have the biggest collection of coconut genetic resources among all state colleges and universities in the world. This was certified on May 10, 1999 by Carlos B. Carpio, PCA’s Deputy Administrator for Research and Development. At the time, Carpio was a member of the Malaysia-based International Coconut Genetic Resources Network (COGENT) and the Bureau for the Development of Research in the Tropical Oil Crops (BUROTROP) based in France.

After some two decades, the Coconut Breeding and Trials Unit (CBTU) has maintained 100 coconut varieties since its inception and implementation. It also continues to provide varieties both for study and commercial purposes.

The Capiz State University has since maintained this profitable project for the University’s Research department while it continually sets itself to provide livelihood alternatives to the people in the community.

Project Rationale
Coconut plantings in the Panay Island are comparatively smaller than in other Visayan islands. Conditions prevailing here allow opportunities for evaluating and conserving genetic resources that are already available and testing them in a range of environmental conditions.
  • The Island represents three coconut suitability classes, namely: a) highly suitable (Capiz, Aklan, Northern Antique, Northern Iloilo); b) suitable (Iloilo and Guimaras) and fairly suitable (Southern Antique)
  • CBTU makes these test materials available for access, distribution and monitoring.
  • Absence of typhoons and other climatic disturbances makes the area an ideal collection site. Except common diseases of coconut, there was no reported disease of unknown etiology.
  • CBTU can sustain a few varieties in greater number to serve as immediate sources of improved planting materials following controlled pollination for distribution to nearby areas.
  • Duplication of valuable coconut collections is necessary to safeguard the materials from genetic losses.

Site Location
Situated some 107 kilometers from Iloilo City, the Western Visayas regional hub and some 43 kilometers off Roxas City, Capiz’s provincial capital, the Coconut Breeding and Trials Unit (CBTU) based at the Capiz State University Burias Campus is enclosed between barangays Burias and Caidquid, Mambusao, Capiz. The said location is bordered by the mountains of Jamindan, Capiz in the west; Altavas, Aklan in the north; Burias in the east, and barangay Caidquid in the south.

Projects and Activities
The Coconut Breeding and Trials Unit (CBTU) undertakes these activities.
Varietal collection and development
Nursery management
Plantation management
Coconut ecology and physiology
Farming systems
Crop protection
Product development and processing
By-product utilization
Post-harvest handling and storage
Soil fertility management and development
Socioeconomics, marketing and promotion
Increased seed nuts production and generated income
Improved production of complimentary crops and livestock
Production and distribution of high yielding seed nuts and seedlings to coconut farmers
Demonstration of Coconut-Based Farming Systems (CBFS)
Conduct of field days and harvest festival for coconut farmers and enthusiasts
Participation in R&D activities with WESVARRDEC, among others
CBFS awareness campaigns for farmers resulting in increased demand for planting material

Academic Research
CBTU is used as a social and field laboratory by Capiz State University students and faculty and those from other institutions

Site Profile*
Total Project Area
64 hectares
Area Planted To Collections
36:67 has.
Water-Logged Areas & Rice Fields
5 hectares
Border Rows And Vacant Areas Due To Blocking Design
24.33 hectares
Average Area Planted Variety
0.40 hectare
Germplasm Collection
Existing Palms

 *Data as of October 2002

18 Apr 2011

For a More United PSPC Feeling

By Catalina L. Leonor

All other things being equal, an individual who works under wholesome and favorable circumstances can be more efficient and productive than the one who works under a hostile environment.

If one knows he is taken by the system for what he is and his contribution to the system is accepted and recognized no matter how small and insignificant it may appear to be; if he knows that he is treated fairly well and his welfare is being taken care of; if he is made to feel that he or she is an indispensable part of the big wheel which keeps the organization moving, there is no denying that an individual in his proper mindset would do everything for the success of that organization.

The Panay State Polytechnic College (PSPC) is an organization (we would like to call it a family) composed of intellectuals who know very well their duties and responsibilities as well as their rights and privileges.

Just like any other big family we would like that harmony and understanding would prevail among its members.

This important facet of any progressive organization is taken for granted or overlooked, such that if this is allowed to go uncorrected, cracks may develop in this otherwise happy and prosperous family which is PSPC.

It must therefore be the policy of the College to create and provide a wholesome climate within and among the campuses conducive to higher efficiency and productivity.

How can we attain this favorable climate conducive to self-satisfaction, harmonious relationship and professionalism among the expanding PSPC family?

Consider these strategies which I suggest be implemented as guidelines in our official functions.

1.      Regular values reorientation seminar program for all faculty and employees including the administrators of the College
2.      Clear job description and expectations  for each employee
3.      Clear statement of organizational policies
4.      Association of faculty and employees in each campus and a federation of these associations
5.      Provision for incentives and merit awards for outstanding performance
6.      Prompt and fair action on complaints and problems
7.      Clear policy on recruitment and filling up of vacancies
8.      Democratization of administrative and management functions
9.      Screening committee on scholarship and seminars

It is envisioned that the implementation of these guidelines go a long way in helping improve the organizational climate within and among the PSPC campuses.

Portions of Catalina L. Leonor's “For a more United PSPC ‘feeling.’” Published in From An Educator’s Perspective, Panay State Polytechnic College Faculty Forum 1 (2): 3, 9–10. Mambusao, Capiz: Panay State Polytechnic College, 1989.

14 Apr 2011

DA 6 shares R.A. 10068 to Dao, Capiz

By Niño S. Manaog
University Extension Associate
Capiz State University

During the Seminar on Mitigating Climate Change Impact in Agriculture Through Organic and Natural Farming Technology held in Lolet’s Eco Park in barangay Duyoc, Dao, Capiz on March 16, 2011, Dr. Hector Peñaranda, officer-in-charge of the Specials Concerns and Institutional Development Unit of the Department of Agriculture (DA) Region 6, zoomed in on practices which the farmers can adopt to fully participate in the advocacy campaign for climate change.

Peñaranda presents the hierarchy and the mechanisms involved in the regional
implementation of the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010. As per the said law,
DepEd is also urged to have Organic Agriculture embedded across the learning curricula.

Among other measures, local farmers can implement changes in cropping pattern; adoption of appropriate technology; establishment of adjustment crops; alternative livelihood; buffer stocking which provides for the farming resiliency in dire times; and organic farming.

Peñaranda also discussed the nitty-gritty of the effects of agro-climatic in-disease. Peñaranda cited the gross emission of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide most probably produced by agricultural sector worldwide. “We can only limit, mitigate but not stop [the adverse effects of] climate change,” Peñaranda said.

DA’s Peñaranda covered discussions of the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, otherwise known as Republic Act 10068, citing that there is an urgent need to campaign, promote, and practice organic farming practices by institutionalizing it through the government agencies concerned.

According to Peñaranda, DA Region 6 recently partnered with three NGOs—two in Negros Occidental, one in Iloilo—jointly pursuing organic agriculture campaigns and advocacies. Such partnerships will allow for more participation and implementation of organic agriculture advocacy and development plans.

Five municipalities in Capiz applied for organic agriculture programs seeking grants for implementation. Penaranda urged the Capiz constituents to work toward realizing it.

Peñaranda presented the hierarchy and the mechanisms involved in the regional implementation of the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010. As per the said law, DepEd is also urged to have Organic Agriculture embedded across the learning curricula.

In the same initiative attended by some 80 participants representing many sectors in Dao, Capiz, FITS Dao Manager Susan Dordas also lectured on the global climatic events brought about by climate change, citing likewise the causes, effects and impact of the said phenomenon on agriculture industry.

12 Apr 2011

Love and Protect Your Animals

Have Them Vaccinated

By Bede P. Ozaraga, Ph.D.
Capiz State University Dumarao Campus

Like human beings, animals deserve protection and care. You can show your love to them by protecting them. And you can protect your animals by having them vaccinated from diseases, namely—dogs against rabies; cattle, carabaos and sheep against Hemorrhagic Septicaemia; and poultry from Newcastle Disease. What follows are the said diseases and their symptoms.

Rabies. A highly fatal, zoonotic viral disease, rabies attacks dogs, cats, bats and wild carnivores. Moreover, all warm-blooded animals are susceptible to rabies. Rabies is transmitted from animal to animal through a bite, which introduces virus-bearing saliva. Vaccinating your dogs provides them blanket protection from rabies and protects human health through the control of animal diseases transmissible to humans.

Hemorrhagic septicaemia. Usually affecting cattle including carabaos, goats and sheep, hemorrhagic septicaemia is indicated by these signs and symptoms—depression, anorexia, serious nasal discharge, cough, fever, increased pulse rate and rapid shallow respiration. Hemosep vaccination provides immunity to cattle including carabaos, sheep and goats.

Newcastle Disease. An acute, rapidly spreading viral disease of poultry in which coughing sneezing or rales are often accompanied or followed by nervous manifestations and infections with some strains, by diarrhoea and swelling of the head. Vaccination will provide your birds blanket protection from the said disease.


The PSPC Extension Bulletin 3:1.July–September 1988. Mambusao, Capiz: Capiz State University, 3.

Maghimo sang Kaugalingon nga Abono

Ang Paghimo sang Kompost

By Nelson C. Berondo
Extension Coordinator
Capiz State University Mambusao Campus

Sa karon nga mga paniempo padayon nga nagata-as ang presyo sang abono. Iban sa mga mangunguma nagatinguha gid nga makabakal sang abono maskin paagi sa pagpanghulam sang kuwarta nga may mataas nga interes.

Ang tanan himuon hasta lang makagamit sang abono sa uma nga kon panumdumon ang maprodukto sa nasambit nga uma husto lang ibayad sa hulam ukon diutay na lang ang mabilin. Sa sini nga sitwasyon, ang mangugnuma kinahanglan nga makakita sang paagi para makasolbar sini nga problema.

Ini nga problema mapahagan-hagan paagi sa paghimo sang kaugalingon nga abono gikan sa palibot kag wala sing gastos. Halimbawa sini amo ang paggamit sang mga dahon sang ipil-ipil, kape, ukon saging. Pwede man higko sang kasapatan katulad sang baboy, bibi, kabayo, kanding, manok kag karabaw; mga panit sang prutas, ulutanon kag hilamon; mga hinugas sa kusina, damog kag iban pa.

Ang mga masunod amo ang mga paagi para sa paghimo sang abono.
1.      Magpili sang mayo nga lugar sa palibot.
2.      Magsukat sang 2 x 3 metros.
3.      Buhu-an sang isa kag tunga ka metros kag isiparar ang ibabaw nga lapok.
4.      Butangan ang buho sang 2 o 3 ka pulgada nga patay nga mga dahon ukon hilamon.
5.      Dugangan sang higko sang mga hayop.
6.      Butangan sang mga hinugas o kon higko sa kusina. Ini puwede masulit hasta mapuno ang buho.
7.      Pagkapuno sang buho, butangan sang sulungawan nga butong. Tambakan sang naibabaw nga lapok.
8.      Tubi-an kada duha ka adlaw para madali ang pagdunot.
9.      Ini pwede magamit nga abono pag-abot sing 9 ukon 10 ka semana.


Utilization of Animal Products

By Cora F. Navarra, Ph.D.
Dean, Graduate School
Capiz State University Mambusao Campus

Our farm animals have always been a good source of food, providing us products which are not only nutritious but also those which can be processed or cooked into delicious end products. However, only few among us know how to process or cook animal products like eggs, milk and meat because we can always buy ready-to-cook or ready-to-eat food from the market.

Foods like ice cream, tocino, sausage, balut, or salted eggs can be so expensive that we could afford them only on special occasions. If your time permits, you realise that such foods are not difficult to prepare. Preparing them also assures you of their sanitation and their nutritive value (free of artificial flavours or additives).

What follows are some procedures using various animal products


Homemade Ice Cream

450 ml fresh milk, pasteurized
170 g refined sugar
3 eggs (yolk only)
¾  tbsp cornstarch
Flavour (fruits, chocolate, etc.)

1.      Beat the egg yolk briskly in an aluminium or enamel kettle.
2.      Add sugar, cornstarch and a little amount of milk.
3.      Mix well until the mixture becomes creamy (Use electric beater when available. If not, fork will do). Set aside.

1.      Place the milk in an aluminium or enamel kettle and heat slightly.
2.      Remove from fire and pour the mixture over it.
3.      Place over low fire. Stir continuously to prevent scorching. Cook until the mixture turns creamy. Remove from fire but continue stirring until it cools.

1.      Place the cream into the desired containers like aluminium ice trays, (commercially available) ice cups or plastic wares.
2.      Mix well according to your desired flavour.
3.      Place in the freezer. If you use fruits slices as flavour in big containers, remove the cream from the freezer after two hours. Stir well so the flavour does not settle at the bottom of the container. Do it once or twice every hour thereafter.
4.      The cream you placed in a freezer overnight you can serve the next morning.

Pasteurized Milk
(Double Boiler Method)

Cheesecloth (katsa) or any clean filter cloth
1 big kettle
1 small kettle
Kitchen spoon
Glass jar or bottle with cover
Cooling machine (refrigerator or cooler)

Filter cloth, spoon and milk container must be cleaned and sterilized in boiling water.

1.      Filter the milk into the small kettle.
2.      Place the small kettle into the big kettle.
3.      Put enough water into the big kettle (up to the level of the milk).
4.      Heat the milk up to 63ºC and keep cooking at this temperature for 30 minutes. Gently stir the milk using the spoon while heating.
5.      Immediately cool the milk by exposing the container of the milk to cold running water and continuously stirring the milk.
6.      Transfer the milk into a glass jar or bottles. Cover.
7.      Place the pasteurized milk in the refrigerator or ice box packed with ice.

Soft Cheese

Cow milk
Liquid rennet extract
Casseroles or double boiler
Knife or spatula
Aluminium foil, wax paper or leaves
Cheese mold or tray made of 30 x 3 0 x 8 cm wooden square frame with wire mesh

Before use, dip for 5 minutes the milk containers, ladle, knife, cheesecloth and mold in boiling water or diluted chlorox solution (1T/ gal of water)

Rennet extract preparation
Soak 40 grams dried abomasums or manzanilla (cut into small pieces) in an extracting solution of 900 ml water, 10 ml glacial acetic acid and 50 g table salt. Cover the bottle and grind the abomasums in the extracting solution at room temperature for 4 days. Make sure it is away from sunlight and it is agitated daily. Strain the extract into a clean container using the cheesecloth. Store the rennet extract in a dark, cool place (preferably refrigerator or ice box).

Determine the quantity of milk to be processed. Add 3% salt (30 g salt per 1 l or 1 kg milk). Stir well to dissolve the salt completely and distribute evenly and strain into the casserole using the clean cheesecloth.

Pasteurization. Heat the salted milk at 70ºC to 72ºC. Keep heating at this temperature for 5 minutes. Avoid heating the milk beyond 72ºC. Otherwise, it will turn out a very soft curd that cannot be easily drained. Cool the milk at 40ºC to 42ºC by replacing the hot water in the double boiler with cold water stirring the milk gently.

Renneting. Add the required amount of coagulant (rennet extract) and stir the milk slowly for 3 minutes to evenly distribute the rennet. For every liter of milk, use 4 ml to 7 ml of the extract depending on its strength. Set the milk aside (usually 25 to 30 minutes after the rennet is added) and until it forms a smooth homogenous curd firm enough for cutting.

Cutting the curd. The curd is ready for cutting once it breaks into smooth clean cuts as you slice them. Break the curd by passing a knife or spatula through the curd in one direction at approximately 5 centimeters intervals. Insert the ladle into the cut curd and draw the figure 8 twice to cut the curd further.

Molding. Line the cheese mold or tray with cheesecloth previously immersed in a diluted chlorox solution (2T/gal water). Using a small basin, scoop the cut curd and whey and transfer into the prepared mold. Level the thickness of the curd and cover the filled mold with cheesecloth.

Allow the whey to drain and the curd to mat together for 4 to 6 hours without pressure at room temperature or in n ice box or refrigerator (8ºC–10ºC) when available.

Cut the cheese into blocks of approximately 8 cm x 8 cm and wrap individual blocks in wax paper, plastic sheet, aluminium foil or fresh banana leaves. If less soft cheese is preferred, leave the blocked cheese on the tray to drain further before you wrap them.

The PSPC Extension Bulletin 3:2. October–December1988, 2.

Tubli: Maayo Nga Hilo sa Punong sang Lukon

Tubli, Or Poison Vine Is Excellent Pesticide for Sugpo Pond

By Prof. Diony Cahilig
Research Coordinator
Capiz State University Sapian Campus

Ang tubli, ukon [Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth.] isa ka hilo nga makapatay sang mga isda sa punong apang indi makaaapekto sa lukon.

Nagakamang ini nga tanom. Ang iya sanga natabunan sang medyo balahibo nga kolor brown. Ang iya dahon magtimbang nga mga kalaba nga 30–50 sentimetro. May 9–13 ini nga mga diutay nga dahon nga medyo tipolon apang mahaba nga kon magtigulang , Nagapino ang iya ibabaw kag madanlog ang sa idalom. Ang mga diutay nga dahon sini may kalaba nga mga 10–15 sentimetros kag tinunga ang kalapad. Nagabunga man ini nga may kalaba nga 5–8 sentimetro kag may unod nga 1–3 ka liso.

Ang aktibo nga sangkap amo ang rotenone, isa ka maputi kag wala sing hugom nga butang nga makapauntat sa pagginhawa sang naapektuhan nga isda. Ang pulbos nga rotenone (5–8%) sarang i-apply sa kadamuon nga 10–20 kilos kada ektarya  sa punong nga may tubig sa kadalumon nga 10–20 sentimetro para makakuha sang 5 ppm (parts per million) nga konsentrasyon.

Kon wala sing pulbos, ang gamut sang tubli sarang man magamit.
1.      Hugasan kag utod-utoron sing diutay ang gamut sang magulang-gulang nga tubli—mga duha ka tuig ang kagulangon.
2.      Pagahuluman sa tubig sang isa ka gab-i, ang gin-utod-utod nga mga gamut.
3.      Bayuhon o bukbukon kag tunawon sa tubig nga gingamit sa paghulum para makuha ang solusyon sang rotenone. Ang epektibo nga kadamuon mga 20–40 kilos kada ektarya.
4.      I-apply ang solusyon sa punong nga mga tubig sa kadamulon nga mga 10 sentimetro agud makakuha sang 5 ppm nga konsentrasyon para mapatay ang mga peste nga isda.

Madali makita ang tubli sa mga lugar nga malapit sa sapa kag sa kagulangan sa Pilipinas.

Ang iban pa nga mga ngalan sang tubli amo ang mga masunod—bauit, malasiag, tibalau, tibanglan, tugli, tugling pula (Tagalog), lapak (Bikol), kag tabali (Bagobo).

The PSPC Extension Bulletin 2:3. July–September 1987, 2. Adapted from Quisumbing, Eduardo. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, page 391.

11 Apr 2011

Ang Pagpadamo Sang Azolla

By Raul L. Ticar
Extension Director
Capiz State University

Backyard azolla farm of WESVARRDEC
Magsasaka Siyentista (MS) Gary Andrade of Banga, Aklan
supplies the feeds for the darag native chickens. 
Ang azolla nagalutaw kag nagadamo nga daw banig sa Ibabaw sang tubig, nagasanga kag sa ulihi nagasiparar kag mahimo nga bag-o nga tanom. Ang dahon sini may korte nga triangulo, masili  nga berde ang kolor, matimsog ang mga dahon.

Tungod sang iya madamo nga mga magamitan, dapat gid naton mahibaluan kon paano mapadamo ini.

Amo ini ang mga dapat sundon sa pagpadamo sang azolla. 
  1. Magpili sang isa ka lugar sa uyapad ukon talamnan nga indi tama ka tampad sa init ukon magpili sang lugar nga ginahandungan.
  2. Ipreparar ang talamnan pareho sa kon ikaw magtanom sang palay.
  3. Mintinahon ang kadamuon sang tubig halin sa 5 – 7 centimetros ukon basta sa ikaduha nga linya sang natunga nga tudlo nga ang punta basta lang makatandog sa duta.
  4. Isab-og ang preska nga azolla sa kadamu-on nga 200 gramos ukon 2 ½ lata sang gatas nga kondensada kada metro kwadrado.
  5. Sab-ogan sang superphosphate ukon 0-18-0 nga Abono sa kadamu-on nga 8.3 gramos kada metro kwadrado ukon isa ka kutsara sa ibabaw sang azolla. Bandugon ini para matunaw sa tubig kag para indi masunog ang dahon sini.
  6. Kon may makita nga sapat-sapat, butangan sang isa ka pudyot nga Carbofuran kada metro kwadrado para mapatay ang mga ini.
  7. Kon ang imo talamnan sobra sa isa ka metro kwadrado, bandugon ang azolla sang silhig nga bukog kag laptahon agud magadasig ang pagtubo.
  8. Pagkalipas sang 8 tubtub 12 ka adlaw ang bilog nga isa ka metro kwadrado nga gintamnan mapuno na sang sobra sa isa ka kilo nga preska nga azolla. Pwede na ini makuhaan sang similya para sa mga daku pa gid nga talamnan.

The PSPC Extension Bulletin 1:2 July – September 1986. Mambusao, Capiz: Panay State Polytechnic College, 3. Adapted from Household Kitchen Garden Technology Brochure Volume 1 Series 1.